If your child’s airway becomes partially or completely blocked, he will choke. And if he is unable to get enough oxygen into his lungs, he may lose consciousness. To restore normal breathing, the blockage must be removed. “Speed is of the essence in any choking situation. Being able to dislodge a blockage quickly greatly minimises the risk of further complications. However, never try to remove a foreign object unless you can actually see it, as you can run the risk of pushing it further into the airway,” says David Stanton, Head: Clinical Leadership at Netcare 911. “Depending on their age, the child may not be able to communicate that they are choking. Therefore, as soon as you notice a baby or younger child is unable to cry, cough or talk, it is likely that something is blocking their airway. They may even turn bright red or blue. It is important to keep calm and think rationally about what you will need to do to best assist the child,” he adds.
Signs that your child is choking:
- His breathing is obstructed.
- Your child’s face may turn blue.
- He tries to cry but is making strange noises or no sound.
Follow these steps to help your child if he is choking:
Get him to cough
Encourage your child to cough as this will help to dislodge the obstruction. If this doesn’t work, Netcare 911 suggests doing the Heimlich manoevre.
Here’s how to do it:
- Stand or kneel behind the child.
- Wrap your arms around them, and make a fist with one hand. Place your fist against the stomach, just above the belly button.
- Place your other hand over your fist. Position your body up against the child.
- Give a series of five hard forceful squeezes. You are trying to force the air out of the child, in an attempt to dislodge the object.
- Check in the mouth to see if you can see the object. If you can see it, pull it out.
Backslaps (If the Heimlich manoevre doesn’t work)
If the obstruction is still there or he seems to be weakening, position your child with his head as low as possible, and slap him sharply five times between the shoulder blades with the flat of your hand. Keep repeating Heimlich thrusts and back blows until the object is released or check if you can see the object and pull it out.
If your child is an infant and choking, lay him down with his head low along your forearm. While supporting his head, perform the five sharp slaps.
For a child, you will need to stand or kneel behind him. Make a fist and place it over the centre of his chest. Cover your fist with your other hand and give five sharp inward thrusts.
For a baby, if the backslaps fail to clear the blockage, turn him face up while lowering him in an upside-down position on your forearm. Place two fingers on the lower half of the breastbone and give five sharp downward thrusts. These act as artificial coughs.
Look in his mouth
Put your finger on his tongue to clear the view. (Don’t put a finger down his throat unless you can see the obstruction to hook it out).
If the blockage is still there, make a fist, place this below the ribcage and make five upward thrusts.
“It is essential to call for professional help if the object does not come out in the first few seconds. If at any time, the baby or child becomes unresponsive, place them gently onto the floor. Begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). When giving breaths, take a moment to look in the mouth and see if you can see the object, and remove it if possible. You will need to continue CPR until help arrives, ” says Stanton.
What to do if your child has stopped breathing:
Open the airway
Lay your child down on his back on a firm surface. Place two fingers under his chin and tilt his head back.
Using your finger and thumb, pinch your child’s nostrils closed. Inhale, put your mouth over his mouth making a complete seal, and breathe out until his chest rises. Remove your mouth and watch the chest fall. Give one breath every three seconds.
Check the pulse
After one minute of ventilation, check the pulse in your child’s neck. If there is no pulse, give chest compressions – place the heel of your hand below the ribcage and press down sharply five times in three seconds.
After every set of five compressions, give one breath of ventilation. Don’t stop to check your child’s pulse unless he shows signs of reviving. Alternate five compressions in three seconds with one breath of ventilation. Repeat until your child coughs and the object is dislodged.
Xanet is an award-winning journalist and Living and Loving’s digital editor. She has won numerous awards for her health and wellness articles and was a finalist for the Discovery Journalist of the Year in 2009 and again in 2011 for the Discovery Best Health Consumer Reporting and Feature Writing category. She is responsible for our online presence across social media channels and makes sure our moms have fresh and interesting articles to read every day.